# Analysis of group 3 cations

Iron confirmatory tests

For both the tests a preliminary operation is needed. The intention is to bring Fe3+ in solution; in order to achieve this results we solubilize ferric hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid (2N).

The hydroxide is easily dissolved:

Fe(OH)3 + 3H+ $\rightleftharpoons$ Fe3+ + 3H2O

In fact, the Fe 3+ ion in solution coordinates around 6 water molecules and it is pretty stable.

Fe+3 + 6H2O $\rightleftharpoons$ Fe(H2O)63+

The solution should be now colorless, but if the coordinate complex undergoes partial hydrolysis it is possible to obtain a slightly colored solution (from yellow to red rust). Obviously we are talking of a clear but colorful solution, there should be no precipitate.

Fe(H2O)63+ $\rightleftharpoons$ [Fe(H2O)5(OH)]2+ + H+

Identification with potassium ferrocyanide K4[Fe(CN)6]

Fe+3 + K4[Fe(CN)6]  $\rightleftharpoons$  KFe[Fe(CN)6]

We add a few drops of reagent to the solution containing Fe3+ . If present, Ferric ferrocyanide gives a blue precipitate.

Identification with potassium thiocyanate KCNS

We create a two-phase system by adding ether to our solution. Then put in two spatula of potassium thiocyanate. A complex forms and it goes in the organic layer.

[Fe(H2O)5(OH)]2+ + NCS- $\rightleftharpoons$ [Fe(H2O)5NCS] 2+ + OH -

It is ferric thiocyanate, red precipitate.

The complex is not very strong and then is advisable to operate using a large excess of reagent (KCNS) to shift the balance of complex formation to the right. But if we use a too large excess, what we are going to get it is a new complex, red colored and soluble in the aqueous phase (K3Fe(CN)6).